Cars are very complex machines and all systems work together. They power, control and control the car and make it comfortable for people to drive in.
The heart of every car is its engine. It produces power that rotates the wheels and electricity for lights and other systems.
Most cars are powered by an internal combustion engine. Fuel, usually petrol or gasoline, is burned with air to produce gases that expand. A spark plug produces a spark that ignites the gas and causes it to burn. This energy flows through cylinders in which the pistons move up and down. They are attached to the rods that move the crankshaft.
Ordinary car engines have four to six cylinders, but there are also models with eight and sixteen cylinders. The rotational movement is transmitted through the drive system to the drive wheels.
The fuel system pumps petrol from the tank to the engine. Older cars had carburettors that mix fuel and air and send gas to the engine. Some cars have a special fuel injection system that sprays petrol into the engine. Modern cars have turbochargers that draw in additional air and thus generate more power.
The engine and all the parts that transfer power to the wheels are called propulsion systems. This includes the transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles and drive wheels that move the car. While most cars have drive wheels at the front, some have them at the rear. Cars that have to run on all types of ground have four-wheel drive.
The transmission controls speed and torque. When the car is moving at normal speed on a flat road, it does not require as much torque to keep it moving, but when you want to start the car from above, the engine must produce more power. Gearboxes control engine speed and power in a variety of driving conditions.
In cars with manual transmission, change gear by pressing the foot downwards on the clutch and moving the lever. Cars with automatic transmissions change gears without the driver’s control. Lower gears give the car more torque and speed. When the car moves faster, the gearbox shifts to higher gears.
The drive shaft transmits power to the axle, which is connected to the wheels. It has several joints that make the axle and wheels move as the car travels on uneven and bumpy roads.
The differential is connected to the rear end of the drive shaft. This allows the wheels to turn at different speeds, as in corners the outer wheels have to travel a greater distance than the inner wheels.
The steering controls the front wheels. By turning the steering wheel, the steering wheel is directed to the left or right. Most cars have power steering and the hydraulic system makes it easier for the driver to turn the wheels.
The brake system releases or stops the car. The brakes work on all four wheels. There are two basic types of brakes: drum or disc brakes. In both cases, the friction pads are pressed against the drum or disc by means of a hydraulic system.
All cars have emergency hand brakes, which you use in the event of failure of the hydraulic system. It is also known as a parking brake because it stops the vehicle before going downhill. Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) keep the wheels rotating when you step on the brakes. This computer-controlled system prevents slippage on slippery roads.
Read more about driving car tips at driving guide website.